Mumbai Mahawar Vaish

History of Mumbai

The history of Mumbai recounts the growth of a collection of seven islands on the west coast of India, becoming the commercial capital of the nation, and one of the most populous cities in the world. Although human habitation existed since the Stone Age, the Kolis, a marathi Mumbai Etymology fishing community, were the earliest known settlers of the islands. The Maurya Empire gained control of the islands during the 3rd century BCE, and transformed it into a centre of Hindu and Buddhist culture and religion. Later, between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Silharas from 810 to 1260.

King Bhimdev established his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century, and brought many settlers to the islands. The Muslim rulers of Gujarat captured the islands in 1348, and they were later governed by the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1534. The Treaty of Bassein between the Portuguese viceroy Nuno da Cunha and Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate placed the islands into Portuguese possession in 1534. Charles II of England received possession of the islands in 1661 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, and leased them to the English East India Company in 1668.

The islands suffered incursions from Mughals towards the end of the 17th century. During the mid-18th century, the city emerged as an important trading town, with maritime trade contacts with Mecca and Basra. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century with the first-ever Indian railway line beginning operations between Mumbai and neighbouring Thane in 1853. The city became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century and was the epicentre of the Rowlatt Satyagraha of 1919 and Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946. After India's independence in 1947, the territory of Mumbai Presidency retained by India was restructured into Mumbai State. The area of Mumbai State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into Mumbai State.

In 1960, following protests from the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, the city was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Maharashtra State from Mumbai State. The city's secular fabric was torn apart in the communal riots of 1992–93, while the bombings of 1993 caused extensive loss of life and property. The city was renamed Mumbai in 1996.

TRAVEL WITHIN CITY : Mumbai has an extensive public transport system which includes suburban railway, BEST buses (Brihanmumbai Electric and Support Transport system), metered taxis and auto rickshaws. The suburban railways and buses make up for around 85-90%of the public transport.

LOCAL TRAIN : Suburban railway is the backbone of the transport system. Three main railway lines connect most of the city. Trains are always on time and economical, however they might be crowded in peak hours. The basic fare may range from 10 INR to 100 INR. The trains run from 4 am to 1pm, and there are trains arriving at the station every five minutes. It is also advisable to take care of valuables even in the first class section. Rush hour constitutes office timings from 8 am to 11 am and 5 pm to 7pm. The traveler should avoid the rush hour. Women travelers can make use of the separate women compartments and they might be less crowded than the general compartments.

BEACHES : Magnificent beaches, breezy evenings soaked in the beauty of nature, Mumbai is a destination that has a never dying spirit unlike any other metropolis. Ideal for relaxing, sunbathing, a picnic day out, to spend an evening of contemplation or a romantic evening with your loved one - the beaches of Mumbai is the place to be amid all busy buzz of city life.

BEST SEASON / BEST TIME TO VISIT MUMBAI : Humid and dry seasons dominates Mumbai's weather, the best time to visit this place is during the months from October to March.

  • Winters (November to February) are characterized by considerably low temperatures, dry & cool weather. The minimum temperature reaches up to 10°C. This time is perfect for sightseeing and other tourist activities.
  • Summers (March to May) are humid season with hot climate with a maximum temperature reaching up to 40°C. Due to hot weather, most people avoid visiting in summer months.
  • Monsoons (June to September) are accompanied by heavy rainfalls with high level of humidity. Traveling in monsoon season becomes a little difficult due to rains.
  • March and October are mild warm but this period is suitable for exploring tourist attractions. November to February has pleasing climate which makes it perfect for sightseeing and all types of tourist activities. It is better to avoid traveling in monsoon months as water clogging on roads is common phenomenon, which may disrupt you from moving out.